doom-modeline disables modeline icons when running Emacs in daemon mode. This caused me much head-scratching, but I came across two solutions:

The quickest is to set doom-modeline-icon to t during initialization. This works fine, but if you connect emacs from the terminal using emacsclient -nw things can look a little weird.

Adding the following to my “init.el” file does the same thing, but only enables icons the first time a window frame is opened:

(defun enable-doom-modeline-icons (_frame)
  (setq doom-modeline-icon t))
(add-hook 'after-make-frame-functions 

I’m still looking for a way to switching icons on and off when switching between a terminal and windowed session. This does things well enough for now.